Java is a pure object -oriented programming language , that is easy to learn .Java is platform independent (that is architectural-neutral)so it can run on any platform , this feature of java make more popular in programmers because of reusability of codes (portable) on different platforms. 

History of Java 

 Java was conceived by  Games Gosling , Patrick  Naughtan , Chris Warth , Ed Frank , and Mike Sheridan at Sun microsystem , Inc in 1991. It took 18 months to develop the first working version .  This language was initially called "Oak" , but was renamed "java " in 1995.Between the initial implementation of Oak in the fall of 1992 and the public announcement of java in the spring of 1995 , many more people contributed to the design and evolution of the language .

Java is just a name and is not an acronym.

Features of Java:

  • Simple
  • Object -oriented
  • Distributed
  • Interpreted
  • Robust
  • Secure
  • Architectural neutral(Platform independent)
  • portable
  • High performance
  • Multithreaded
  • Dynamic


Java is simple an easy to learn by a programmer , if you know about C/C++ then it's too easy for you to understand the syntax and  the Object -oriented programming  which used in java , java is a subset of C/C++  programming language 


Almost everything in java is a class a method or an object .Any code we write in java is inside the class. Java is pure object oriented programming language and it provides Abstraction , Encapsulation , Inheritance and polymorphism


Java is a distributed program in which it can access the objects through out the network , java used in web pages to run applets(small java programs) on the web .Java also supports Remote method invokes(RMI)


Java is both compiled and interpreted to execute the code , java is compiled by the compiler javac and then interpreted by the interpreter java .While compiling java  file the .class file is created which is platform independent and then interpreted by the java interpreter.


Java is a robust program because it is less prone to error because the program is checked by javac compiler and then interpreted by the java  interpreter so less chances to error .It also provides exception and error handlings


Java programs can be executed in an environment that prohibits it form introducing viruses , deleting or modifying files

Architectural Neutral (Platform-independent)

The goal to create a java language is "write once; run anywhere , any time , forever" . The java compiler can create a bytecode which is platform independent and executed on variety of computers and operating systems


Java programs can run on Multiple platforms .Java source files are compiled  to Byte code files . Byte code is standardized machine independent  low level language.   

High performance

Java byte code was efficiently designed so that it would be easy to translate directly into native machine code for high performance by using just in time (JIT) compiler


Multithreading is the ability of an application to perform multiple tasks at the same time . So a simple program can do many task simultaneously


Maintaining different versions of an applications is very easy in java  .Java is capable  of dynamically linking in class  libraries ,method and objects .Java supports  dynamic memory allocation with automatic garbage collection


Types of Java programs:-

Java language is mainly used for internet programming .We develop the following types of Java programs

  1. Application program or stand alone application
  2. Applet or Intelligent program
  3. Servlets

Application program:-

Application program are mostly in the form of character user interface . They are similar to other programs written in C or C++ . An application is nothing but a program that runs on your computer , under the operating system of the computer.


Applets are mainly used for internet applications then programs run on a web page and require Java enabled web browser or applet viewer . simply we define applet as follows:-

Java programs that appears to be embedded in a web document . An applet s loaded and executed, when a user loaded a web-page through a web browser applet programs are used to make animation display images.


Servlets is a mini server side program similar to an applet defined in the java servlet Application program Interface (API) .it enables to extend the functionality of web server .It is particularly used for producing dynamic web contents.

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